Would of Could of Should of

Would of could of should of. When you start saying that too many times you know you’re doing something wrong. Over and over. That’s kind of how I feel now that I’m about to rearrange some raised beds for like the how manyeth time? I think if there was one thing I wish I would have done seven long years ago when I started this garden was absolutely nothing. That’s right, instead of digging up half the property to make a vegetable garden, ordering the roots of native shrubs from Minnesota, letting my mom plant two large asparagus beds in a floodplain, buying $60.00 worth of native plants from a native plant sale, I would have instead just done nothing but stand back and watch.

Yes, like a nosy neighbor I would have watched the land surrounding my garden get mowed within an inch of its life. Watched as water during heavy rains flooded a large part of my garden under several inches of water. Noticed that my garden was down the hill from a parking lot that caught the runoff from countless roofs, shooting it across the scalped lawn before flooding my garden.

Noticed that beyond the thick wall of white mulberry mixed with grapevine, porcelain berry, forsythia, bindweed, ivy, sweet autumn clematis, Virginia creeper, a basketball hoop and chain link fence there were some awkward, unfinished structures made with brick. Structures that looked like they were supposed to support something but didn’t. There was also a beat up sports car with flat tires, a pile of old tile along with other odds and ends and a rooster. A live rooster. Make that two who did not try to remain anonymous. Who in fact drove my husband to the brink of calling the county. Always on the brink.

Maybe, I would not have taken down that wall of mulberry mixed with grapevine, porcelain berry, forsythia, bindweed, ivy, virgin’s bower, Virginia creeper, a basketball hoop and chain link fence in order to build a wood fence so that a parallel wall of made out of cinder block could be built no more than 6” from it. A wall that is not level or straight with large sloppy globs of dried mortar.

And I would not have chosen to divert that flood of water water by digging a trench that sent it into another property and flooded their basement.

But I also would have read. I would have read about permaculture and permaculturists who say it’s a good thing to mix perennials with annuals and encourage this thing called the keyhole garden design that means the garden beds look more like a keyhole than a rectangle. But I also would have read that different plants require different soil so I wouldn’t have mixed things up too much and I probably would have gone with the rectangular garden beds in some cases. I would have read about how to take care of soil and learned that turning it over with a shovel is not taking care of it especially when turning it after it’s been flooded. And that soil should not be left bare over winter. In fact, soil should never be left bare. And I would have learned that crop rotation means rotating crops according to the family they’re in not according to the name of the crop.

And I would have watched and read. I would have noticed that there were a lot of rabbits in the neighborhood and that rabbits love gardens, especially vegetable gardens and I would have read that the only real way to keep them out is with either a dog or cat or some pretty heavy duty rabbit fencing without any holes or gaps that would allow them to squeeze through.

And I would have thought, given all these givens, about how I wanted my garden to be before digging up half the property. But that is not how gardening works. And now, once again, I’m digging up this precious ground and it probably won’t be the last time.

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Let the Workhorse Plants Work

Grow little plant, grow.

Ok, let’s face it, growing some perennial plants (like native ones) from seed takes time. Lots of it and lots of patience too. Meanwhile the garden looks, well, let’s just say it’s not going to make Fine Gardening anytime soon. While I can use my imagination to visualize what’s to come, most people just see an empty spot of dirt. What if there was a way to speed that process up a bit. Get a bit more immediate satisfaction. I think all my trials and tribulations have finally gotten me to a realization. What if instead of only planting slow growing plants, I let certain plants, sometimes known as workhorse plants, help me out along the way. Plants like annuals, volunteers and hardy herbs that grow quickly, often plant themselves, fill in empty spaces and protect the soil while the slower growing perennials take their good old time.

I’ve so often snubbed annuals thinking they were for beginner gardeners who just wanted something to grow but hey, isn’t that what I want? Let’s face it, patience comes a lot easier with something quick and pretty to distract me from my waiting. I also was worried they might be invasive or become aggressive but as ecologist, Chris Helzer says in a recent post about non-native plants,

A plant’s status as native or not became less important than how it affected the diversity and function of the plant community it was part of.

The natural process of succession starts with more aggressive shorter living plants that gradually give way to slower growing longer living plants. Allowing some shorter living annuals, herbs and fast growing native plants to cover certain areas will pave the way for those slow growing, longer living plants. Many of these quick growing plants also provide valuable ecological services while the tiny slow growers aren’t. Lemon balm, basil, sage, parsley, dill, wild marjoram, violets, white snakeroot, mint and even yes, ground ivy are a few examples.

Lemon balm, a perennial, creates a lovely, dense mound and turns red in fall. It also pops up pretty much everywhere but is easy to pull when young.
While not my favorite, ground ivy does an exceptional job of covering this pathway.
Wild marjoram, also a perennial, covers this bank between establishing purple coneflower and butterfly weed.
This native pokeweed grows like wild fire reaching heights of 7 feet or more so I let it block out the cinder block wall while the holly takes it’s time in the foreground.
Native violets voluntarily cover the bank of this swale while slower natives get established.

A great example of implementing this concept is in my front yard garden where I want to plant an edge of native flowers and grasses that hide my sometimes pretty unattractive vegetable garden from people passing by. I’m also planning on an island in the center to provide a permanent point of interest. Instead of just planting the natives, I’ll plant annuals. I’m thinking about a heavy layer of basil, marigolds, zinnias and/or coreopsis. Then, I’ll add slower growing plants in a strip behind them where their tininess will be hidden by the front layer of annuals. This will not only keep weeds down but it will quickly add that beautiful border.

Next year that crazy layer of homemade mulch and cardboard will be a thick layer of annuals with a layer of slower growing plants behind.

The fact that some plants are a little (and I mean a little) more aggressive isn’t so much a concern because they are so much easier and less disruptive to remove (especially in the early stages) than other more aggressive or invasive plants. And because these plants do an excellent job of covering ground they will suppress as well as hide the less respectable weeds. In short, hopefully my garden will be more beautiful, bountiful and ecological in a shorter amount of time and with a lot less effort.

I really have nothing against weeds but for some reason these beauties just scream weed.

Garden Design, Plant Communities and Cinderblock

This little elderberry (Sambucus nigra canadensis) is meant for great things.

I read this article that got me thinking about the design of my garden. After getting over my obsession with cramming as many vegetables in as little space as possible and realizing if I planted trees it would take a very long time for them ever to make a forest, I planted some trees, also known to many designers as the bones of the garden. They are the focal points, the ones that appear as a skeleton (unless they’re evergreens) in winter. But most are only a few feet tall and not too skeletony yet which leaves the rest of the herbaceous (or often called forbs) to tell the tale. Forbs consist of flowers, grasses, sedges and rushes.

But what is the tale I’m trying to tell? Besides growing food for myself, creating habitat for other life forms and eliminating my lawn as much as possible, what am I trying to achieve from an aesthetic viewpoint because aesthetics is something I’ve been putting on the back burner for quite some time. I guess I thought the native plants would somehow take care of that naturally. I kept telling myself it just takes time. Things will fill in next year and maybe they will or maybe they won’t and meanwhile my garden looks more like an overgrown vacant lot than the High Line.

In the article, Margaret Roach, who writes the popular garden blog, A Way to Garden, interviewed landscape designer, Thomas Rainer and confirmed my suspicions. In the wild, native plants form communities that look pretty good. Places like Dolly Sods in West Virginia and Yellowstone National Park and my own favorite, Merchants Millpond in North Carolina, but other places like my garden, not so good. Why is that I wondered? What am I doing wrong?

Well, Rainer points out plants are not meant to be planted as individuals but as members of an ecosystem where they work with other plants to form communities. Rainer says,

In the wild, every square inch of soil is covered with a mosaic of interlocking plants, but in our gardens, we arrange plants as individual objects in a sea of mulch. We place them in solitary confinement.

This was a profound concept. I’d known it but somehow never really got it until I read the part about switchgrass, a plant that’s abundant in my garden but somehow never looks right. I think messy would be the term.

Dotted line of switchgrass lines the berm of  swale in background.

Rainer says switchgrass doesn’t grow all together in the wild. It grows in tufts scattered amongst other more colonizing plants such as Pennsylvania Sedge (if I have it right). The point being because it doesn’t naturally grow like a groundcover it looks ridiculous if planted that way. And yes, as I looked out at the dotted line formed by tufts of switchgrass along the berm of my swale, it did indeed look ridiculous. And it looked even more ridiculous when during a heavy rain, it flopped like it was having a bad hair day. Yes, something had to be done with the switchgrass.

Rainer seemed to suggest that in natural environments, plants grow according to different levels. Lower level plants tend to pop up here and there amongst higher level plants made up of more colonizing ground covers. This is how I understood it anyway (I’ll read the article again just to make sure).

So, what were my lower level plants and what were my higher level ground covers? Well, that’s easy. Lower level plants are switchgrass, wild bergamot, hairy mountain mint, sneezeweed, white snakeroot, milkweed, coneflower, rudbeckia and great blue lobelia. But what were the higher level plants, the colonizing ground covers? I guess that would have to be my old friends, the violets and Virginia creeper, the natural ground cover in my garden. But couldn’t shrubs and trees also be higher level colonizing ground covers? Swamp rose and elderberry come to mind.

At any rate, it all got me to thinking not just about plant communities but about my garden and me. Sure, my garden provides me with food and habitat for other life but does it provide me with joy? Yes and no was the answer. My garden, it seemed needed some unnatural natural beauty. The dotted line of switchgrass needed to go. Borders needed to be defined. Bare soil needed to be covered. Paths needed definition. Plants needed combinations that work as communities and that mysterious cinderblock wall that failed to conceal the car needed to be concealed from me.

Yes, the cinderblock wall that I keep telling myself doesn’t bother me does indeed bother the heck out of me. First of all, it’s ugly. Second of all it doesn’t even provide privacy. The swamp rose should eventually hide the car but the wall, that wall. Then I had an idea. An idea that nearly blew me away. Elderberry. It grows from a foot to 12’ in 3 years and it blocks everything out. I happen to have a young seedling growing in the driveway. Because it can be short lived, I’d plant an American holly behind it that would grow slowly over time.

Imagine this in front of wall.

I would lose more space for vegetables but so what? This was my master plan. My husband is not so enthused but I know better. This was the community my garden was telling me to make all along.

 

April Notes 2017

Choose your battles. That’s a phrase my mother doesn’t like. Too war like I guess.

compost bin for weeds I made with wire fencing

Yesterday I weeded so much I could still see them when I closed my eyes long after I finished for the day. The picture above doesn’t do the day’s work justice. The weed is mostly ground ivy and if we could make fuel out of it we could fuel the world. Another interesting one called (I think) hairy bitter cress kept exploding in my face every time I touched it. Not a great time to weed though. Dry as a desert but once I got started I couldn’t stop.

The large, big leaved plants in foreground are mullein, a herbal plant from Europe.

Much of the weeds actually came from this area. I need to fill in this space with something like prairie dropseed, little bluestem, purple coneflower and heath aster. For now I’ll probably cover the bare areas with cardboard and then cover that with

this homemade mulch.

Mullein is listed as an invasive species but its also a biennial. The plants in the picture resulted from me letting one go to seed a few years ago. With these I’ll cut off the flower before it seeds but before then I’ll leave it to cover area, provide organic matter and I don’t think it looks too bad. We’ll see.

You may not be able to spot the temporary bunny fence in the photo and that’s the idea. I made it out of bird netting, sticks, landscape fabric staples (to clamp down the netting) and this really cool stuff I  found at the hardware store called

Bond Manufacturing Twist Tie Dispenser With Cutter. Very cool stuff. This may work because there’s also plenty of unfenced lettuce and other things for these adorable but not so garden friendly furry friends. So, hopefully I’ll have a somewhat easy to install, reusable, bunny fence that keeps out the bunnies. We’ll see.

Fleabane makes itself at home and a nice border along the front walk.
Something I planted or weed I didn’t.

I planted a variety of native plant seeds in the fall. So far I haven’t seen any signs of the golden Alexanders, Bush’s coneflower, butterfly weed, wild bergamot, columbine, New England asters, goldenrod, gray sedge, New York ironweed and little bluestem. It may be the winter was too warm for the right stratification or the fact we’ve been having a severe drought or they just haven’t come up yet. I’ll give them another month or so.

milkweed? The soil here looks like a sandy beach but I assure you it’s hard as rock.
Compost covered cardboard, my way of smothering sod, controlling weeds and procrastinating.

What will I grow here?

Violets? What would I do without them? They are tough as nails and so pretty right now.

Christmas fern I purchased from a plant sale.

Got this beauty as a bare root from Izel  Plants. At 3 for $10.00, it was much less expensive than buying them potted.

You can see the artistry of this homemade border I made with stuff I had laying around.

Not exactly a picture out of Better Home and Gardens but there is some logic to this. I made a raised bed out of soil I removed from below. The area below is now the early stages of a rain garden with great blue lobelia, sneezeweed, boneset, milkweed and of course, violets. The brown stuff in the raised bed is the remnants of sorghum-sudangrass, a cover crop that produces loads of organic matter and grows great here.

Imagine a pawpaw tree growing in the center of this photo but for now the central characters in the scene are wild bergamot, big bluestem and lovage. This year I’ll be cutting the bergamot down after it flowers to prevent it from getting too tall and flopping and to induce a second flowering.

All kinds of things happening here. In the foreground is a raised bed where I’m growing mustards and peas as a cover crop and for eating. To the right is a swale I made a few years ago to divert run-off water. In it, will be switchgrass, great blue lobelia, sneezeweed, white snakeroot, milkweed and hopefully gray sedge, goldenrod and New England aster, seeds I planted in fall. I put cardboard on the banks where I’ll probably plant little bluestem or something. The 2 cylinders made of wire mesh are protecting my latest find, Allegheny Plum, a rare and threatened native shrub. For now they’re only a few inches high but alive. There are two weedy asparagus beds and two other raised beds where I’ll be growing tomatoes, garlic, peppers and lettuce.

My neighbor seems to like cinderblock. I’m not so fond. I’ve planted New York ironweed, winterberry, switchgrass, big bluestem and American holly to hide it. Virginia creeper is also looking promising.

Sadly, I cut down a wild black cherry because I thought it was too close to the house. With its trunk and a trash can lid, I’ve made a bird bath.

But all over the garden are these little wild cherries that give me ideas.

Form Follows Function

dont-ask

 

I take it back, that last title, I mean. There really isn’t anything easy about landscape restoration. In fact, there isn’t anything easy about gardening at all. It’s not hard because it’s back breaking work and a constant struggle against weeds and pests or what to plant where or how much to water. Gardening is hard because it is gray. There is no one recipe for the perfect garden. No garden of Eden. And that is for me I think, part of the fascination. While there is much science in gardening, gardening is not a science.

After the election, I began to feel like it’s ridiculous to even be talking about gardening. It just seems so frivolous, so petty when there are so many crazy things happening in the world but I can’t seem to help myself. I’m obsessed. I think it’s because gardening is simply all I’ve got. If we could all just get our hands in some dirt we’d be fine. Breathe in the air. Listen to the birds. Feel the sun. Heal ourselves from the bottom up. Look over our fences and greet our neighbors on the other side. What are they growing? Do they like hot peppers?

But alas, I am directing my husband through rush hour traffic using the Google traffic map and the neighbors probably don’t appreciate my garden. I shudder to think how my neighbor feels about the white snakeroot deadheads snaking their way onto his driveway or my use of layered cardboard and dead leaves as mulch that I confidently assure my husband will be the last time.

I’m not your average gardener, you see. If there were a word to describe my gardening style it would probably be eccentric, extreme or more likely, sloppy. The desired function of my garden is to supply myself with food and wildlife and wildlife with food and shelter. Secondary to that is beauty and order. I can’t stand spending money which is probably why I like to grow from seed and use cardboard and leaves as mulch instead of wood chips.

I should probably cater more towards my neighbor’s taste. After all, it’s the neighborly thing to do but that would most likely entail no garden at all. Only sod. Plain old, ordinary, sod. God. I’d shoot myself. Maybe I could tone down the wilderness a bit. I plan to once things start to fill in but for now…

Maybe my neighbor doesn’t hate it too much. After all, we put a nice fence in recently. He made a point to say how nice it looked. It was the first time he’d said something to us, well my husband, not me, in at least a year. “Fences make good neighbors,” as my mom loves to say.

In some other life, I had a neighbor similar to this. He also was the yard type. I had him all figured out, you see. The type who could never have enough power tools and a mower that made a terrible grinding noise every time it went over a rock. He never stopped or moved the rock so he didn’t hit it the next time, just kept on going over the same one. He set his mower so low it scalped any uneven ground. I guess his strategy was he wouldn’t have to mow as often. He liked to mow when the ground was wet. Never mind that the mower would break down every ten feet. When he was finished his yard belonged in an art gallery on Fifth Avenue. I saw him use his leaf blower on the last colorful leaves of fall still clinging to the branch of a tree. I guess he was trying to hurry up the fall process so he could move on to the next season already. Several times during the summer he’d walk the perimeter of his rectangular lot, spray canister in hand, happily dousing Roundup on anything in its path. Sometimes he’d get carried away and the greens in my adjacent garden beds would turn an eerie white.

He used to try and be neighborly. He’d offer me power tools as tokens of peace. When he saw me cutting down a tree with a hand saw, he offered a chain saw. When he saw me turning my sod with a shovel, he offered me a rototiller. With each gift offering, I always declined saying doing it by hand was my workout. Finally, he didn’t offer anymore. It was a little sad now that I think about it.

My neighbor had a certain strategy to his yard work. I don’t think it was so much about efficiency as it was about ritual. Despite his industriously efficient methods, I believe yard work was actually something he enjoyed. He was a fidgety man. He needed to keep moving and what better way to do it than spending equal amounts of time behind each power tool. He didn’t want to think. He wanted to do.

It was not always this way. There was talk in the neighborhood that at one time an old lady lived in my neighbor’s house and had a beautiful garden filled with Thai peppers and lemongrass. A handsome pear tree was all that remained of the mysterious garden. Each year its fruit would slowly disappear, carried away by squirrels, crows and other critters. No one knew how the lady was related to my neighbor or what became of her.

My neighbor was not without his own small garden. Each year a car load of large tropical plants would appear. He would line them up like soldiers along the side of the house, their only maintenance, a thorough watering each morning. There they would stay until fall when they would be put back in the car and taken to some unknown location until spring.

While his yard was sparse in the way of herbaceous plants, he didn’t seem to mind a canopy of trees. A mature silver maple, dogwood and a few white mulberry trees lined the edge of his property. An old cedar grew out from the foundation of his house. I’m not sure if he appreciated the presence of these trees but they were there nevertheless, much to the relief of many birds, insects and animals.

Despite our drastic differences, somehow, my neighbor and I had developed an understanding. In fact, I realized I almost preferred him to a neighbor more like myself who would always be awkwardly there requiring constant polite conversation or even worse someone with an impeccable yard, the kind with the solid, perfectly edged wood chip mulch islands dotted evenly with garden center shrubs and the all too obvious home security system marker. The kind of neighbor who would always be looking down at me making me feel like a sloppy heel. My neighbor and I were equal in our imperfections. We had our flaws and we knew it and I think that’s what inspired our mutual understanding. The strange thing was that it actually gave me freedom. I didn’t feel the need to impress him so there was no need to live up to any standards. I didn’t feel the need to have an impeccable yard. As long as I kept things out of his area, I could experiment. I could take time to grow native plants from seed, use cardboard and leaves as mulch, make a rain garden, grow unusual cover crops. Out of the the awkward function, came a beautiful form, a garden where the earth gave back her treasures and I helped them grow into something bountiful. Maybe it wasn’t perfect. Maybe it wasn’t helping our property values but it was in its way harmonious, however imperfect, perfect in its imperfection, a fine balance between a mower and a grower.